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安徽11选5投注技巧视频:美語訓練班 - 第67課

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A: 歡迎大家來到這期的美語訓練班! 我是楊琳!

B: 我是Mike! 楊琳,趕快來告訴大家今天都要學什么?

A: 沒問題! ,今天,咱們要去看看美國人怎么給小費,跟移民律師聊聊怎么申請移民,還要告訴你怎么說“不同尋常”!

B:Tipping is definitely a western tradition. I remember when I had just come back from China, I always forgot to give a tip and people would give me dirty looks...

A: 哈哈哈!! 嗯,我也記得我剛到美國時也特別不習慣給小費呢! 不過這個咱們等會再說,現在,咱們還是趕快來進入第一個單元,Learn a word!

Learn A Word 1547 insane

今天我們要學的詞是 insane. Insane is spelled i-n-s-a-n-e, insane. Insane 可以用來指瘋狂的,精神不正常的。比如,A Texas judge found the JetBlue pilot insane and not guilty of interfering with a flight. 德克薩斯州的一位法官裁定,捷藍航空公司的一個飛行員精神失常,所以他干擾正常飛行的罪名不成立。Insane 也可以用來形容某事過于荒謬,不同尋常。比如,He inherited an insane amount of money from a distant relative. 他從一個遠房親戚那里繼承了一大筆錢。再比如,My boss puts in insane hours. He's a typical workaholic. 我老板工作沒日沒夜,他是個典型的工作狂。好的,今天我們學習的詞是insane, insane, insane...

B: Ok, I have to say I like DC a lot, but summer here is kind of insane.

A: Are you talking about the humidity? If you are, I'm definitely with you...

B: Yes!! How can the humidity be 80 or 90 percent every single day? It's so insanely humid that my usually awesome hair looks frizzy! Ehh...

A: Usually awesome hair?....請不要自作多情。(笑) 不過今天早晨我在地鐵站聽人說馬上就要下大雨了,so I guess this heat wave is at the end of the line.

B: That would be great! I don't know how long I can take this! Actually, you just mentioned a very good term: the end of the line. Let's listen to today's words and idioms to see what it means!

Words and Idioms 977

現在播送<美國習慣用語>第 977講。我是楊琳。

M:我是 Dan Markus.

最近我的一個朋友心情特別差,因為他已經工作了10多年的服裝店要關門了。這家店多年來一直銷售手工衣物,但是現在服裝連鎖店越來越多,這家店已經沒辦法繼續經營下去了。對于這家店和店里的員工,我們可以用下面的習慣用語來形容:

M: The end of the line. End is spelled e-n-d, and line; l-i-n-e. The-end -of-the-line.

The end of the line這個短語的意思是盡頭,極限。在上面的例子里,由于服裝店要關門了,很多年的經營走到了盡頭,所以我朋友肯定會失去工作。在下一個例子里,我們將會聽到美國臭名昭著的罪犯阿爾.卡彭是怎么倒臺的。我們來聽聽看:

M: "Al Capone became well-known for being a crime boss in Chicago when alcohol was illegal. From the early 1920s to 1931, he made a fortune smuggling and producing liquor. He reached THE END OF THE LINE, not from those activities, but from trying to avoid paying taxes. His career was over when the government finally convicted him and sent him to prison."

這段話是說:阿爾.卡彭是芝加哥有名的犯罪大佬。從1920年代初到1931年,酒精飲料還屬于非法的時候,他通過走私和釀酒賺了一大筆錢。但是他后來落敗,不是因為非法釀酒和走私酒精,而是因為偷稅漏稅。政府最終認定他有罪并把他送進了監獄。

那會兒,美國有個法令,叫PROHIBITION,中文意思就是禁酒令,根據禁酒令,制造、販賣或者飲酒都是違法的。這個法律減少了人們的飲酒量,但同時也增加了集體犯罪。And that actually contributed to Prohibition reaching THE END OF THE LINE. 成了禁酒令最終被廢除的推手。好了,我們再來聽聽剛才那段話:

M: "Al Capone became well-known for being a crime boss in Chicago when alcohol was illegal. From the early 1920s to 1931, he made a fortune smuggling and producing liquor. He reached THE END OF THE LINE, not from those activities, but from trying to avoid paying taxes. His career was over when the government finally convicted him and sent him to prison."

The end of the line 盡頭,極限 。現在一切都變化得特別快,一個地方今天還好好的,明天可能就會 reach the end of the line 不復存在。 下面這個例子中,講述者對童年有什么樣的回憶呢?我們來聽聽看:

M: "When I was a kid, my dad and I used to go fishing at the lake near our house. Then we started to notice that there wasn't much to catch anymore. THE END OF THE LINE came when officials declared that the water was badly polluted. Nobody could enjoy it. "

這段話是說: 小時候,爸爸常帶我去家附近的河里釣魚。后來我們注意到,河里的魚好像少了許多。直到有一天,有關部門宣布,河水污染過于嚴重,禁止釣魚了,我們爺倆兒釣魚的傳統也就結束了。

這可真讓人沮喪!環境污染確實使很多人失去了享受大自然的樂趣。說起來,我今天剛剛收到一封信,說我們家旁邊的郵局就要關門了。確實,現在人們大量使用電子郵件,郵局生意越來越差。The popularity of emails may mean THE END OF THE LINE for a lot of post offices. 好的,讓我們再來聽聽剛才那段話:

M: "When I was a kid, my dad and I used to go fishing at the lake near our house. Then we started to notice that there wasn't much to catch anymore. THE END OF THE LINE came when officials declared that the water was badly polluted. Nobody could enjoy it. "

今天我們學習的習慣用語是the end of the line 意思是“盡頭、極限”。好的,這次[美國習慣用語]就到此結束,我是楊琳,我是 Dan Markus。謝謝各位的收聽。

B: So, I have some good news. I finally find a place to settle in, so my daily 2 hour commute will finally come to the end of the line! 太高興了!

A: 這樣你就不用每天早晨3點半起床了呀!!! 恭喜你恭喜你!! There's no way that I can get up at three thirty am. Speaking of which, I'm going for my green card interview this Friday at 7 am! I need at least three alarm clocks to wake me up!

B: Hahaha, yeah, I don't think I've ever seen you before 11, ha? Actually, you seem a little freaking out, are you ok?

A: 哎,還好啦! 我只是有點緊張! God knows what they will ask? 我聽說有好多人被面試兩三個小時呢! 真可怕! I'm also a bit worried I won't be able to understand some legal terms since English is not my first language.

B: Just relax and tell the truth, I'm sure you will be fine! Or you can always bring a lawyer, that way it won't be only yourself, and you can make sure you can understand the questions correctly.

A: 請律師? Hmmm....that's a good idea! 正好,在今天的美語三級跳里,Amir就要去找他的移民律師John, 我們一起來聽聽律師的建議!

Citizenship: Intermediate

家好!今天我們為您播出“美語三級跳”節目“移民入籍”單元的中級課程。

mir 正在申請成為美國公民,今天,他要去見移民律師 John, 聽聽他的建議。

John: Hi Amir, it's nice to meet you. I'm happy you want to become a US citizen.

Amir: Thank you, John. I'm very excited, but I'm also a little worried about how long and complicated the process can be.

John: Don't worry, I will be here to help you through it and explain what's going on.

Amir: Great, that's really helpful for me. When you aren't a native English speaker, it can be hard to read all the documents and understand the naturalization process.

哈,John 當然希望Amir申請入籍啦,這樣他的生意就來啦!

Professor: Well, I guess you could look at it that way. But Winnie, why does Amir say the application process can be hard?

Amir說,他不是“native English speaker”--英語不是母語,所以在填表的時候會遇到困難。對了,professor, Amir提到一個詞--naturalization,這是什么意思?

Professor: Naturalization is the process of becoming a citizen of another country.

哦,naturalization就是入籍,變成另外一國的公民。

John: So Amir, how did you come to America originally?

Did your company sponsor your visa?

Amir: Actually, no. I got married to an American while living in Iran, and we decided to settle in the United States.

John: Oh, you have an American spouse. Where do you live?

Amir: I really like city life so New York is my favorite city. But my wife has some family in Virginia, so we live there.

Professor: So Winnie, did Amir first come to America on a work visa?

Amir并不是拿工作簽證來美國的,而是在伊朗時和美國人結婚,然后到美國定居。我猜,spouse就是配偶的意思吧?

Professor: That's right.

Professor, John 問Amir是不是有公司"sponsor him for a visa",這是什么意思呢?

Professor: When a company "sponsors" you for a visa, they ask the government to give you a visa. Usually you need a sponsor in the US to get a visa.

哦,公司可以作為擔保人,替雇員向政府申請工作簽證,這個過程就叫"sponsor"。

Professor: So if you are applying for a job in America, you might ask the company, "Can you sponsor me for a visa?"

John: Well there are some things you should do to start preparing for the interview. You should learn about US civics and the constitution.

Amir: Don't worry, I've already lived in the US for three years and know all about its history and politics.

John: Good, then the interview and test won't be a problem. Do you have any dependents?

Amir: No, my wife and I don't have any children.

Professor: So Winnie, does Amir have to prepare a lot for his citizenship test?

申請入美國籍需要參加citizenship test--公民考試,所以要了解美國的civics--公民知識,還有constitution--憲法。不過,Amir說他已經在美國生活三年了,這些知識他都懂,所以不需要做太多準備。

Professor: That's right. John also asked Amir if he had any "dependents". A dependent is anyone who depends on you to take care of him.

對,dependent 就是需要供養的親人,比如小孩,年邁的父母等等。Amir和妻子沒有孩子,所以沒有dependent.

Amir: So John, do you think there will be any problems with my application?

John: It definitely sounds like you are eligible to become a US citizen. I think that before too long, you won't have to be an alien anymore!

Amir: Yeah, I can't wait! Hopefully I will become a citizen in time to vote in the next election.

John: I sure hope so! Good luck!

Professor Bowman, alien不是指外星人么?我不懂為什么美國人把來美移民也稱為"alien",我又不是從火星來的!

Professor: Really? Sometimes I doubt that.

哈,被你發現了! 言歸正傳,Amir希望自己能盡快入籍,這樣,他就能享受公民獨有的投票權了!

Professor: Let's listen next time to see if Amir is able to vote in the next election!

A: Amir找到移民律師,討論naturalization , 入籍過程。他將需要通過citizenship test, 入籍考試,需要了解civics 公民知識和constitution 憲法。Amir希望更順利入籍,so he will become a citizen in time to vote in the next election, 下次選舉就能投票了!

B: That's exciting! Good luck with your interview as well! Speaking of which, what do you think was the most difficult thing to adjust to when you first came to America?

A: 我想想,我覺得主要是文化方面的東西。比如說我不理解美國人為什么那么喜歡橄欖球,還有那么喜歡喝啤酒,呵呵。哦對了對了,我記得我剛剛來的時候,特別不習慣給小費呢! 弄得別人老給我臭臉!

B: Hahahah, oh you poor thing! And...I can totally related to that. I remember when ever time I got back from China, I would always forget to leave a tip and people would give me dirty looks!

A: Oh, so it's not just me! I feel so much better!!!

B: Tipping really is a western thing. In today's Business Etiquette, Kyle and Jerry are debating the American custom of tipping, let's see what they have to say!

禮節美語 BE-253 Tipping I

Lily在公司休息室看到同事Kyle和Jerry在聊天,上前打招呼。

Lily: Good afternoon, guys. Am I interrupting something?

Kyle: Jerry and I were just debating the American custom of tipping.

Jerry: Yeah, he's in favor and I'm opposed.

L: It's not just the custom in America....I'm from Canada and tipping is also common there. I'm not too fond of tipping, either. So Jenny, tell me why you're opposed.

J: I just don't like the inconvenience. I like to look at the menu and if the price of a meal is $10.45, I know that that's what I have to pay....$10.45. Back in China, I never have to think about whether someone deserves a tip or not.

Kyle和Jerry正在討論美國給小費的習慣。tipping is spelled t-i-p-p-i-n-g, tipping 是給小費的意思。美國和加拿大都講究給小費,Kyle is in favor of it. Kyle 贊成這種做法,但是Jerry is opposed to it. Jerry覺得這種習俗不好。他說,中國不用給小費,看菜單消費價格一目了然,根本不用考慮服務員的服務如何,是否 deserve a tip 應該給小費。

K: I can understand how tipping might not be convenient, especially for visitors to America. The one thing that I dislike about tipping in the U.S. is how sometimes the restaurant staff forget that tips are supposed to be a reward for quality service.

L: Yeah, that's a problem in Canada as well. Tipping has become such a part of the culture that everyone just expects one....even if they don't offer good service.

J: But quality service is supposed to be a part of the job! A restaurant hires staff to be a waiter or waitress and that means service is part of the job! The restaurant is paying you....your salary is your tip!

Kyle和Lily都覺得,給小費本應該是 a reward for quality service, 是對優質服務的獎勵,可如今,餐館服務員好象覺得拿小費是理所當然的,不管服務質量的好與壞。Jerry反駁說,餐館雇服務員就是為了服務顧客,工資就是他們的報酬,為什么還要給小費呢?Kyle解釋說:

K: But in the United States, restaurant staff depend on tips because American law allows many restaurant owners to pay workers less than minimum wage.

J: Why is that?

K: Because they're expected to get tips. Tips might make up as much as 30% or 40% of an employee's income.

L: That's true....many servers in restaurants depend on tips for a big part of their income.

J: I would rather they paid the workers more. I'd even be OK with adding a 10% service charge to the price of the meal. I just refer things to be upfront.

Kyle說,正是因為有小費,所以美國法律允許餐館老板給服務員的報酬低于最低工資水平 the minimum wage. 服務員收取的小費占了他們收入了很大一部分,有30%到40%之多。Jerry說,他寧可餐館多付點錢給服務員,哪怕在飯菜價錢上增加10%的服務費 service charge 也在所不惜,他就是希望價錢能一目了然,upfront is spelled u-p-f-r-o-n-t, upfront, upfront在這里是直截了當的意思。

A: Jerry 認為算小費太麻煩,他希望價錢一目了然,to be up front; 而Kyle認為小費是a reward for quality service, 對優質服務的獎勵,所以支持給小費。What's your thought on this, Mike?

B: Well, I'm in favor of tipping. Since most restaurants don't have to pay the minimum wage to their staff, I think they deserve to be tipped. It's just part of the culture that I grew up with.

A: 我剛來的時候其實特別不習慣! 每次都要算來算去,考數學呀!

B: 哈哈哈,yeah, it's our way to maintain your math level...

A: So how much would you usually tip?

B: I think 15% is the golden rule, but I usually tip 20%, since I'm ...awesome!

A: Yeah right. (兩人笑) 好了好了,言歸正傳,我們還是接著去聽聽Kyle和Jerry的辯論吧!

禮節美語BE-254 Tipping II

Lily跟同事Kyle和Jerry在聊西方給小費的文化,Jerry是從中國來的,覺得美國給小費的習俗很不方便。Lily說,

Lily: I can see how the custom might make visitors uncomfortable. I've heard stories about restaurant staff getting angry at tourists. Some Americans might not realize that tipping is not a custom in many places around the world.

Kyle: In Japan some people get offended if you offer them a tip. Tipping is not a part of their culture at all. They feel quality service is their duty.

L: Every culture looks at this issue very differently.

Jerry: Yeah...back in China tipping goes the other way around! Restaurant owners will often give free drinks or food to customers as a reward for loyalty. So, what happens in Canada or the U.S. if the service is really awful? Can you skip the tip?

在小費方面的文化差異,有時還會引起糾紛,如果外國游客不給小費,有些不明就理的餐館服務員就可能感到氣不過。與此同時,在日本,給別人小費,則會讓人覺得這是一種侮辱,而在中國,Tipping goes the other way around! 不是顧客給服務員小費,往往是餐館給那些老顧客一些好處,讓他們經常來照顧生意。Jerry問,那如果服務特別差,是不是就不用給小費了呢?Kyle回答說,

K: Um..not really. I know some people might reduce the amount as a way of demonstrating they were unhappy. But you pretty much always have to leave a tip.

L: In Canada, we don't tip as much as they do in the U.S.---ten or 15% is fine.

J: But in the states they expect 20%.

K: Yeah that's true. Back in the 1980s it was also about 10 or 15%, but everything has gotten more expensive.

J: Do you really think tipping inspires better service?

Kyle說,給小費已經是約定俗成的了,即使服務差,多少也要留一些,美國的小費高一些,多達消費總額的20%,而加拿大稍微少點,10%到15%就夠了。給小費的做法真能刺激服務員,提供更加周到的服務嗎?Lily覺得:

L: Even though I'm not such a big fan of the practice...actually, I think it does.

K: Yeah, I would have to agree. The staff knows that there is the potential for getting a nice tip if they treat the customers right.

L: The staff will often be more attentive, and will make sure they get all the little details of your order right, because sometimes a generous person might leave them a sizable gratuity.

J: I guess - just like everything - tipping has its pros and cons.

MC: Lily說,雖然 I'm not a big fan of the practice....雖然我不是特別認同給小費,be a big fan of something 是熱衷,支持某事的意思,這里所說的 the practice 指的就是給小費的習俗,但是她覺得服務員確實會為了多拿小費而提供更周到的服務,對顧客更加 attentive 無微不至,如果碰上個大方的顧客,就可能拿到 a sizable gratuity 一筆數目可觀的小費,gratuity is spelled g-r-a-t-u-i-t-y, gratuity也是小費的意思。

B: So 楊琳,you are still cooking me authentic Chinese food this weekend, right?

A: Well...that might happen, depending on how much tip I'm getting!

B: Ha! What? You are really a fast learner, ha? (笑)

A: Of course! 好啦同學們,這次節目時間就到這里。 如果你有什么建議,或者想提什么問題,請發電子郵件到[email protected]

B: Tune in next time for American English Mosaic!

A: See you next time!

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